Chicago Style

Examples of Citations for Photographs and Other Visual Media in Chicago Style

The following sample citations for photographs, images, and other visual media are adapted from the Purdue Online Writing Lab's guidance on citing Miscellaneous Sources and Audiovisual Recordings and Other Multimedia in Chicago style. These examples demonstrate the notes and bibliography method of Chicago style.

Visual Arts 

This includes photographs, images, paintings, sculptures, and all other forms of visual media, physical as well as online objects.

Notes format

3. Firstname Lastname, Title, date, medium, height × width × depth (unit conversion), location.

Bibliography format

Lastname, Firstname. Title. Date. Medium, height × width × depth (unit conversion). Location.

For online images, you should provide a URL at the end of your citation, as in the following examples:


4. Caspar David Friedrich, Der Mönch am Meer, 1808–10, oil on canvas, 110 cm × 171.5 cm (43 in × 67.5 in), Alte Nationalgalerie, Berlin, Germany,

5. The Swimming Reindeer, 11th millennium BCE, mammoth ivory, 20.7 cm × 3 cm × 2.7 cm (8.1 in × 1.2 in × 1.1 in), British Museum, London, England. 

6. Ivan Frederick, The Hooded Man, 2003, photograph, The Economist, cover, May 8, 2004.


Friedrich, Caspar David. Der Mönch am Meer. 1808-10. Oil on canvas, 110 cm × 171.5 cm (43 in × 67.5 in). Alte Nationalgalerie, Berlin, Germany.

The Swimming Reindeer. 11th millennium BCE. Mammoth ivory, 20.7 cm × 3 cm × 2.7 cm (8.1 in × 1.2 in × 1.1 in). British Museum, London, England.

Frederick, Ivan. The Hooded Man. 2003. Photograph. The Economist, cover, May 8, 2004.

Film, Television, and Other Recorded Media

Notes format

1. Firstname Lastname, Title of Work, directed/performed by Firstname Lastname (Original release year; City: Studio/Distributor, video release year), medium.

Bibliography format

Lastname, Firstname. Title of Work. Directed/Performed by Firstname Lastname. Original Release Year; City: Studio/Distributor, video release year. Medium.